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Infectious disease threat is one of the most important and serious problems in the modern world. Megacities, environmental pollution, increasing number of microbes, insufficient new antibiotics, and frequent moving of people abroad are the leading factors of spreading infectious diseases. The current essay presents the information about the current infectious disease threat, factors that make up the chain of infections, immunity types, effects of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and measures taken to deal with infectious diseases.
The Current Infectious Disease Threat both in the United States and Worldwide
Previously, many infectious diseases were considered under control, and some of them were even on the verge of extinction in the 1960s (Lundy & Janes, 2014). However, the situation has greatly changed and nowadays infectious diseases are the key causes of about third of all deaths around the world.
The National Intelligence Council predicts that in twenty years, the security of the United States and the world, in general, will be under the threat of infectious diseases.
Many diseases emerge outside the United States and are carried by foreign travelers, food, animals, plants, and insects. Consequently, the US citizens may face a horrifying danger, and not only those who are in the country, but also those who are abroad. For instance, such infectious disease as influenza kills about 30.000 Americans annually. Further, other countries are also affected by infectious diseases. Asia has a dramatic increase in deaths because of malaria and cholera. Western Europe has faced threats of such infectious diseases as AIDS, hepatitis B and C, and the diseases transmitted from animals to people (Lundy & Janes, 2014). The epidemiologists are afraid of the time when another fatal infectious disease will emerge.
Emphasizing infectious diseases as the future global threat, they can be divided into some categories, namely new kinds of pathogens, zoonoses, epidemic plants and animal diseases, STDs, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. Each of these threats is a challenge for the development of the future humankind. Consequently, the problem of infectious diseases has become the global threat for human health and life.
Factors That Make up the Chain of Infections and Different Types of Immunity
There are many different factors that cause infections’ development and make them resistant to main treatment techniques. The first and the main factor that makes up the chain of resistant infections is a human being. More than 100 million people live outside the country where they were born and emigrate every year (Abubakar, Stagg, Cohen, & Rodrigues, 2016). International tourism also plays its role. Irregular sexual life with different partners and the use of drugs have made changes in the patterns of behavior and have influenced spreading infectious diseases around the world.
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The second key factor making up the chain of infections is the fact that humanity and nature are in a close contact nowadays. Land, water, insects, and animals may be the causes of emerging and spreading dangerous diseases that appear to be immune to treatment. Global warming and strong rainfalls are among those factors that comprise the chain of infectious diseases. Therefore, these factors cause infections that are immune or resistant to the main treatment techniques, which make them a serious danger.
However, the immune system helps the human’s body to defend against infectious organisms or cells. It is divided into innate and adaptive. The innate immune responds first to any pathogen. The adaptive immune has a key feature of “immunological memory.” Sometimes the adaptive immune can be a helper to the innate one in overcoming the disease (Abubakar et al., 2016).
Effects of STDs on Global Health
In the modern world, STDs gain increasingly negative popularity among people than at any other time. Such diseases can also be called venereal diseases. STDs include more than 20 different infections. AIDS is the most dangerous and serious disease for people, caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Every year millions of men and women all over the world suffer from sexually transmitted diseases. There are 33 million people who live with HIV. About 500 million people have genital infections. More than 290 million women are treated for a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014). The average age of infected is 16-25 years old (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014). STD infected person may have a long and painful process of treatment. STDs can cause blindness, brain damage, the deformation of bones, heart disease, cancer, birth defects, and death at last.
The key reason of this global problem is the change in the society, human behavior, lifestyle, principles, and views on life. Unfortunately, many people prefer diverse sexual life. Very often individuals do not protect themselves to avoid infectious diseases. There are also many drug addicts, which is a reason of being infected by STDs.
Measures Taken by the United States when Dealing with STDs and HIV
Social education at schools, colleges, and universities is the most effective measure when dealing with STDs and HIV. Practically all students in the United States have some form of sexual education, but the topics they learn vary according to their age. Further, educational newspapers or magazines promote spreading different booklets and leaflets, informing young people about the ways of healthy sexual life. Annually, many students are involved in organizing and holding actions aimed at helping STD infected people. There were also established some social organizations such as Project Inform and Act-Up to help HIV-infected people or to encourage those ones who are at risk of infectious diseases to take regular examinations. The most important aim of the government is to promote healthy sexual activity, strengthen the community’s capacity, and develop access to quality services in preventing STDs and their complications (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014).
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Infectious diseases have become a serious threat to people in the United States and the world, in general. To avoid being infected with any STD, people, especially the youth, should be aware of security measures. Therefore, the question of their sexual awareness should become a theme of great importance.