Motivation in work place has recently become a popular objective for managers. These are seen as bid to increase the productivity of employees. For workers to be able to perform efficiently there is need for motivation. Motivation viewed as drive to achieve the organizational goals and objectives of the firm. In any organization employees plays an important role that cannot be shunned away, as they performances in duties and responsibilities assigned to them defines the success of an organization.
Many theories have been advocated to try and explain the concept of motivation and one the main contribute to motivational theories is Fredrick Hertzberg. Hertzberg postulated the famous "two factor theory or as many could call it "dual structure theory " where he assert that certain factors in the work place motivate workers thus making them more productive.
Apart from the motivational forces existing in organization the leadership of the organization greatly influences the conduct and performances of employees. Thus leadership and motivation are greatly related and no clear distinction that exists between the two concepts in relation to influence over employees productivity. Leaders are know to have the capabilities to influence their employees, thus leaders can have the capabilities of motivating the employees.
This report will study the leadership and motivation aspect in the case study of JT electronics by applying and analyzing the various theories of motivation and leadership as postulated by, Adams (equity theory), McGregor (theory X and Y) and Hertzberg (two factor theory) and will make necessary recommendation for implementation.
Hertzberg postulated the two factor theory or "The dual structure theory" in bid to analyze job satisfaction in the workplace(Achau and Lussier 69). His theory as the name suggests is dual structured, using two components to illustrate how people are influenced. He assert that they are exist two set of factors that influence people; hygiene factors which include salaries that employees receives, security of their jobs, supervision exercised in the work place, the organization policies and its administration, the conditions that employees work in, status that employees gain while working, relationship that exist between co-employees and how they personal life is affected by the job. Although this hygiene factor do not guarantees employee will be motivated but it imposes an element of satisfaction with the work they do thus having a positive influence on their productivity.
The second set of factors that Hertzberg indentifies is the "motivators". This involves what workers do while on the job that makes them develop motivation. he factors that motivates the workers in these scenario include the achievement that employees make, the recognition that workers get out work done, responsibility that have, opportunity for growth and chance for advancement in their career and whether the job itself is interesting to the employees(Nelson and Quick 418).
In the case of JT electronics the employees do not freely interact either with their co-employees in the same departments or from different departments. This shows that there is poor relationship between the employees. Borrowing from the Hertzberg theory the relationship between the employees is one the hygiene factors that increases the employee job satisfaction as he coexistence improves employees' life. In JT employees experience poor relation is an example of bad working environment that workers work in.
From JT case the firms has just laid of part of their employees thus fifty employees left view this down sizing by the company as threat to the security of their jobs. This may might make the workers to for other employment opportunities as they see as if they are the next victim of the next down sizing, to make matters worse the managing directors threatens to fire employees if there is no improvements . According Hertzberg this dissatisfies the employee as they uncertainties about their jobs in future(Clegg, Kornberger and Pitsis 99).
From the "two factor theory" salary is one important hygiene factor but the management of JT does not intend to increase the salaries for it employees. JT electronics expects they workers to increase their productivity while the job their do is not satisfy as there is increasing demand of basic wants by the workers. This is a real problem because as the job dissatisfaction syndrome increase, the more job absenteeism will increase.
Lastly JT electronics does not seem to recognize employees' efforts in the enterprise or achievements made by employees, and there are no career development opportunities available to the workers and this de-motivates the workers as they can't find an opportunity to grow. Hertzberg explains that hygiene only bring satisfaction to the employees but does not directly motivate the employees. Thus JT electronics should aim at both hygiene and motivators so as increase motivation among its employees.
The theory of x and theory of y was developed by McGregor. This theory is divided into two parts each delineating different attitudes portrayed by employees in analysis of motivation where theory X states that people hated working and naturally lazy and will always avoid work if it is possible to do so. Therefore individuals need to be coerced to work supervised closely and cannot be left on their own as the lack self drive required and need to be guided always(Achau and Lussier 79).
In reference to case of JT electronics the managing directors is seen to adopt the theory of x as to blame the employees when one customer cancels his contract with company without even considering other factors like, the client may have difficulties in managing working capital thus cancelling the contract to avoid liquidity problems this can make the client to cancel the contract.
Theory X also assert that employees are in employment just to get money and do not want ton take responsibilities thus it is the work of the manager to plan how work will be done and also to strictly supervise the workers so that the work has been done. In this case employees of JT frequently opt to skip turning up for work. This validates the statement of McGregor in theory X that individual are naturally lazy and need be heavily supervised and coerced so as to work.
For theory Y McGregor argues that employees are self motivated, can practice self control and is ambitious and hardworking. In theory Y managers believes their employees with little help would become responsible, develop ability to control themselves' thus becoming will be self driven. Therefore managers do not have to strictly supervise employees, as they have a sense of trust in the employees. It also assumed that individuals like to work thus they would desire to do the assigned job as perfect as they can. Theory Y assert that the managers would eventually involve the subordinates employees in the decision making process and always seeking their opinion decision that influences them thus there is good working relationship between the superior and the subordinates . This is not the case for JT enterprises as the managers do not consult anything with their subordinates as they delegates a lot work to reduce the work in their desk without considering the effect this would have to subordinate employees(Clegg, Kornberger and Pitsis 58).
McGregor used the hierarchy of needs by Maslow to develop his theory X and theory of Y by grouping needs into lower order (X) and high order (Y). From this he argued that management can adopt any of theory so to motivate its' employees as these theories were the same as they expressed the behaviors shown by employees in the work place despite the fact that they are opposing perceptions.
Equity theory was propagated by Adams in bid to explain where employees derive their motivation. In these theory wish to balance the input which they contributes theirs jobs and the outcomes that derive from their work. It is believed that giving fair treatment to the employees makes them feel motivated. Adams argued that workers offers input which includes, time, loyalty, hard work, commitment, tolerance, determination, support from fellow employees, ability and expect that in return they would get output that fairly compensates them and this may job security, salary that is fair, recognition of their work , good reputation and praises. This implies that employees will seek to be treated in a fair manner and will always compare themselves with fellow employees so to ascertain whether there is equality between inputs and outputs(Adair 69).
In the case of JT electronics the department managers pass on delegated work since they feel that they have oppressed and it is not fair for them to do such work while the general manger relaxes. They are not justified to delegate the assigned work to their subordinates who are in turn de-motivated by the workload facing them without a similar increment in their salaries. This can be showcased by the increasingly absenteeism due feeling that the work they doing is much than the benefits they derive from the employment.
In conclusion the major problems witnessed in JT electronics can be largely attributed to the leadership style adopted by the managing director while all the powers are controlled by him and making decision that involve employees without seeking their opinions this makes feel to feel unappreciated for the services they offer to organization. Also the strict supervision is de-motivating since the employee will just put enough effort just to attain the goal set by management since they feel that everything is imposed on them.
The act of JT electronics management to discourage the employees discussing the problem they encounter in work place is de-motivating since they worker feel relived when they share their problem with other and also this acts as learning process where in such discussion the workers will become aware of concept that they had no knowledge of and these will increase their experience and competence. Employees need to have a sense of belongingness to an organization so that they can be motivated to improve what they are associated with.
From the above analysis of the case of JT electronics using various motivation and leadership theories the following can be stated with certainty that.
Ø Leadership is influence and if used in the right manner it would motivate the employees. Leaders exert influence on employees; they lead the way and offer the right direction to employees in doing this they motivates the employees(Achau and Lussier 26). Therefore strong leadership qualities should be developed so they can be applied in wooing the employee motivation.
Ø There is no doubt that employees should be treated as responsibly so as to increase they motivation. As established from theory Y, when employee are treated in responsible they feel appreciated and recognized for the work they. This motivates them as they aim earning more from the good reputation build.
Ø For employees to be motivated there must be equity between input and output ; that is for the employee to be motivated there must exist equity between the inputs he contributes to the organization and the output that he derives from the organization the benefits that he or she gets from employment . Therefore the organization should make sure that there is input and out balance.
Ø Organization should aim at maintain good working conditions. Good working conditions, helps much in achieving job satisfaction. When a person is satisfied in a job that he does then he will devote much effort in the job thus eventually increasing the motivation that one has to the job(Clegg, Kornberger and Pitsis 56). these also changes the attitude of an employee toward the job as they feel satisfied with whatever they are doing thus making a job even more interesting and entertaining to perform .
Ø An organization needs ton build a plat from that employees develop career wise. Where a firm has encourages growth and development of employees through continuous training, promotion based on performance, honoring achievements by employees; this would motivate employees to achieve more as there efforts are recognized and they feel appreciated(Priest and Gass 54).
Ø Adopted leadership style should motivate the employees. For example, in the case of JT electronics the managing director leadership style adopts Autocratic style. Where he maintains all the powers regarding decision making, and strictly supervises the employees. This demotivates the employees as they are never treated as part of the organization they work for.
Ø For delegation of decision making process to act as motivating factor to employees then it must be done at the right time. This is evident where manager delegate decision making responsibility at a bad timing and ends up de-motivating the employees instead of motivating them.
The above recommendations are some of the changes that organization need to adopt so that they can motivate their employees in a cheaper and sustainable manner rather adopting costly method that do not motivate employees directly.