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In a layman's language, justice administration is the exercising of authority while considering the right of the subject or the individual involved. It is based on the aspects of observing the aspects of equality and equity in the process of enforcing the laws that exist. In other words justice administration is the activity that involves the people who break set laws and the subsequent correctional processes. On the other hand, the National Incident management system is a framework that is used by government and non-governmental organization to ensure preparedness and active response of any security incident that may occur, Barer,(2009). In this study we are going to highlight the roles of a management system that is centralized, the part that the leaders can play in its implementation, the justifications of the existence of the system as well as the necessity of having its agencies working together.
Justice Administration's Necessity in Development of Centralized Management
Because of the need to have compact security operation procedures that are clear and effective, the president of the united stated issued a directive to create a system that was to manage domestic incidents using a professional approach. This was to be created using extensive research activities concerning all levels of potential threats, how to respond and how to tackle impending security incidents.
The research results showed that a proper way of dealing with such scenario was to incorporate the management approach just like the mainstream centralized corporate management processes where the aspects of organizing, planning, controlling, leading and necessary staffing of personnel, to deal with response and preparedness. This means that a good and effective way of coming up with such a systems needs a proper equipping of resources to the security apparatus as well as mechanization of a framework that necessitates coordination of information and the other security activities, Barer, (2009). With the advent of new technology, there are new challenges that can only be addressed with the approach of a management system that is effective.
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In light of that, the other aspects of management namely planning and organizing the system into manner that makes it easy to administer justice is aimed at making the process accountable. It is said that justice has not only to be done but also seen as to be done by the concerned parties. This means the apprehension or arrests of suspects, the trials, the judgment as well as the punishment of the offenders should be seen as fair and transparent. But when we talk about criminal justice it is important to give the role of the leaders in the whole scenario as well as what can be done to combat the newer forms of crime.
Role of the managers and organizational leaders in justice
With the increase of the security issues that include criminology and terrorism in the world there is need for a fresh approach to curb this issue. This is because of the new eras of evolution of new challenges that Cronkhite (2010) analyses in his work. The role of the leaders is being redefined because of the new challenges that are daily cropping up in the area of security. There has been a new crop of criminology namely the cybercrime and cyber terrorism which has serious economic and social consequences. This is from the fact that information technology has taken centre stage on the negative side of security.
This then calls for leaders and mangers to have sufficient training with an intention of combating such challenges. For instance, there have been reports lately of information hacking and breach of security in large organizations which have led to massive losses of money. The criminology is slowly moving from the unlearned and poorly equipped people to the league of the people who posses knowledge and resources and have capacity to cause major harm to systems of organizations according to Kalinich, (2008). There have been reports of creation of computer viruses and other programs that have the capability of getting information from the remotest locations of the organizations! Because of this threat, the 21st century managers have a big role to play in the establishment of the fool proof aspects of security control apparatus. The national criminal justice too has identified the new crimes and set the penalties that will handle such instances.
How leaders should deal with the emerging trends of the
It is a fact that there are emerging trends in the world today in all aspects of life. These changes have an effect on the justice administration in both the national and organizational level too (Cronkhite, 2010). This is another justification as to why the organizational heads should be properly equipped to combat such challenges. As a matter of fact, the above mentioned topic of justice administration course namely the Emergency Management of crime and terrorism, the newer trends of criminology are highlighted. They include the cyber-crime, the biological and chemical threats as well as technologically advanced crime such as cyber bullying and black mail.
These trends have deeply redefined the role of leadership in organizations that deal with the information technology and have seen a number of them taking courses that will necessitate them to deal with the challenges in a more defined way.
This ways include the establishment of policies that address the issues of measures taken for preventive mechanism, the responses in time of crisis as well as the redress of the issue that are impending. These policies also need to be customized to the organization and a level of confidentiality and secrecy maintained in order to keep the environment safe from within and without (Barer, 2009).
Some measures are taken by these leaders to deal with the challenges like providing information management systems that seek to protect the information that is of high secrecy in the organization through aspects of encryption of data, the remote storage facilities and so on. These measures are quite costly but are able to track the culprits and prevent further destruction (Shahidullah, 2008).
These trends and changes are a rationale for the managers of organizations to adopt a system that they can use to administer a safe environment in their firms. However so, there must be a support system from the agencies involved in order to assist the managers in their decisions.
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Agencies involved in criminal justice administrations
They are basically the organizations or bodies that are set up by law or by principle that facilitate the implementation of the justice in the society. They are necessary in addressing issue of crime prevention as well as prevention of the vice in the general solutions. These agencies are divided into various groups and each has their own distinct work specifications or responsibilities. These responsibilities include the identification aspects, the investigation, the implementation as well as the evaluation of the justice processes that is to be done. We are going to focus on the few that are in line with the management of justice in the society.
These agencies include the investigative or secretive agencies which are the central intelligence agencies, the federal bureau of investigations the homeland security just to name a few. The implementation agencies include the police department, the drug enforcement agency as well as the border patrol officers (Tyler, 2007). In addition to that the military or the advanced police Special Forces can be used to implement the justice administration processes. It is thus clear tat the role of the investigator and the implementer forms the basis of justice administration. By these it means that the management of justice through these agencies simplifies the whole idea of justice administration.
In a nutshell it is important to highlight the basic functions and roles of each of these three agencies that are vital in the administration of justice. First, the identification and investigative agencies are used in use of information and leads to bust or prevent crimes. They are also given a role to investigate the crimes which are pending and have twists that are hard to crack by the basic police units. Initially they were involved in the traditional basic crimes and complex security situations (Kalinich, 2008). But with the advent of technological advancements of crime and the emerging trends in security breaches more research and information is being diverted to these agencies to help better solve the situation.
The second agency of implementation is used to enforce the law and the set rules of the society. They include the police and other enforcement agencies. They are used to make seizures use arms and apprehend any security scenario by use of force or otherwise. They have a mechanism that is suited for these activities and are made to maintain stability. The legitimacy of their existence is the fact that criminology uses violence and thus violence begets its own (Shahidullah , 2008).
Lastly the courts are the last and ultimate agencies that are used to prosecute and try the people or organizations that are involved in crime related matters. They gatheer evidence from the investigative and preventive agencies in order to try and get the justice for the crimes that are committed. This arrangement is a perfect example of how the justice system is related to management. The three branches are made in such a manner that they all consist of various duties and responsibilities that they are obligated to do to deliver justice.
It is clear that the public has the interest of the security apparatus at heart. This is why the governments and local authorities are at a big responsibility to adopt a mechanism that is not only effective but also relevant in the administration of the justice in the situations. The aspect of relevance in this situation is paramount because of the ever-changing face of crime in the society at large (Peak, 2010). We are going to look at the further details on the coordination of the agencies in the administration of justice as well as the personnel that are involved.
Multi-Agency Coordination Systems for justice
For there to be a successful administration network there are various aspects or principles that must exist for the same process to occur. They include effective communication, clear structured roles, technological mechanisms and an information processing unit.
An effective coordination necessitated by a good communication network according to Allen (2010). This is that aspect when the investigative, enforcing and the implementive agencies have a clear cut mechanism that information is hared adequately. With the sensitive matter of evidence and it's prove in court, the three agencies need a structure that is effective in preserving the evidence as well referring them when they are needed (Kalinich, 2009). The communication also serves to help the cases or investigation to proceed effectively per each step. The justice system therefore is not complete without a proper communication network.
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The other important aspect necessary for a good system is the defining of the roles and responsibilities that each of the agencies play. This is important as it makes the general system avoid a conflict of interest in the whole operations. The coordination and the joint operations are made basically to necessitate a smooth work environment but that can be disastrous if the roles are not clearly stipulated. The investigative agencies are given a role of fact finding and evidence while the police are used to implement the security responsibilities. The third justice agencies which is the courts which Allen(2010) observes to be used to implement the justice procedures by trying and sentencing of the law breakers according to the set laws and procedures.
The other important aspect of coordination is the technological mechanisms and the information processing units. This includes the means and ways that are used by the agencies to process the information at disposal to either convict a crime or file a court case. This involves issues of methodology that is employed n these scenarios, the research and data analysis by the agencies and so forth to come up with tangible information to prosecute a case.
It is therefore clear that in as much as the agencies work independently it is inevitable that they give each other the supportive mechanism. This is the rationale of the complete and working system of justice administration. This makes it easier for any action that is to be used to avail justice to be flawless and smooth. For instance the issue of response to homeland security breaches or incidents has greatly improved since the terrorist attacks in the early years of the last decade. There has been an aspect of extensive research that aims at creating a system that is not only effective but also relevant and productive, Vogler, (2007). The leaders of both public and organizations are also encouraged to take additional training on dealing with a new wave of rising criminology. Therefore with a clear separation of the justice administrative agencies into three namely the investigative, enforcers and implementing agencies it is a paramount idea that they work independently but also offer each other necessary support mechanisms (Call, 2007).
It is therefore clear that the justice administration system has changed in all dimensions. This study has taken into consideration the role and rationale of a centralized management approach of the justice through an agency coordination format. In addition to that, the role of the leadership and the new challenges that have to be taken by organization heads concerning this issue has also been highlighted. Ultimately, the working together of the agencies is the key to an effective justice administration.
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